Toadstool/Mushroom

TOADSTOOL or MUSHROOM
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Poison-Mushroom-Amanita-muscarPoison Mushroom (Amanita-muscar)
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Most mushrooms sold in supermarkets have been commercially grown on mushroom farms. The most popular of these, Agaricus bisporus, is considered safe for most people to eat because it is grown in controlled, sterilized environments. Several varieties of A. bisporus are grown commercially, including whites, crimini, and portobello. Other cultivated species now available at many grocers include shiitake, maitake or hen-of-the-woods, oyster, andenoki. In recent years, increasing affluence in developing countries has led to a considerable growth in interest in mushroom cultivation, which is now seen as a potentially important economic activity for small farmers.

Skiitake-MushroomSkiitake-Mushroom
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A number of species of mushrooms are poisonous; although some resemble certain edible species, consuming them could be fatal. Eating mushrooms gathered in the wild is risky and should not be undertaken by individuals not knowledgeable in mushroom identification, unless the individuals limit themselves to a relatively small number of good edible species that are visually distinctive. A. bisporus contains carcinogens called hydrazines, the most abundant of which is agaritine. However, the carcinogens are destroyed by moderate heat when cooking.
Phyotropic-Mushroompsychotropic Mushroom
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Many mushroom species produce secondary metabolites that can be toxic, mind-altering, antibiotic, antiviral, or bioluminescent. Although there are only a small number of deadly species, several others can cause particularly severe and unpleasant symptoms. Toxicity likely plays a role in protecting the function of the basidiocarp: the mycelium has expended considerable energy and protoplasmic material to develop a structure to efficiently distribute its spores. One defense against consumption and premature destruction is the evolution of chemicals that render the mushroom inedible, either causing the consumer to vomit the meal (see emetics), or to learn to avoid consumption altogether. In addition, due to the ability of mushrooms to absorb heavy metals, including those that are radioactive, European mushrooms may, to date, include toxicity from the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and continue to be studied.
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Distribution:
Mushrooms are used extensively in cooking, in many cuisines (notably Chinese, Korean,European, Japanese and Indian). Mushroom is called Khumb in Hindi. They are known as the “meat” of the vegetable world. Mushrooms are found though out the world some are edible, others are Psychoactive and the rest are poisonous or deadly.
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Toxic Principle:
All Parts are Toxic.

  • Alpha-amanitin (deadly: causes liver damage 1–3 days after ingestion) – principal toxin in genus Amanita.
  • Phallotoxin (causes gastrointestinal upset) – also found in poisonous Amanitas
  • Orellanine (deadly: causes kidney failure within 3 weeks after ingestion) – principal toxin in genus Cortinarius.
  • Muscarine (sometimes deadly: can cause respiratory failure) – found in genus Omphalotus.
  • Gyromitrin (deadly: causes neurotoxicity, gastrointestinal upset, and destruction of blood cells) – principal toxin in genus Gyromitra.
  • Coprine (causes illness when consumed with alcohol) – principal toxin in genus Coprinus.
  • Ibotenic acid (causes neurotoxicity) and muscimol (hallucinogenic) – principal toxins in A. muscaria, A. pantherina, and A. gemmata.
  • Psilocybin and psilocin (hallucinogenic, ‘magic’, ‘psychoactive’) – principal ‘toxin’ in genus Psilocybe.
  • Arabitol (causes gastrointestinal irritation in some people).
  • Bolesatine a toxin found in Boletus satanas
  • Ergotamine (deadly: affects the vascular system and can lead to loss of limbs and death): An alkaloid found in genus Claviceps

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Poisoning Symptoms include:

  • Alpha-amanitin: For 6–12 hours, there are no symptoms. This is followed by a period of gastrointestinal upset (vomiting and profuse, watery diarrhea). This stage is caused primarily by the phallotoxins and typically lasts 24 hours. At the end of this second stage is when severe liver damage begins. The damage may continue for another 2–3 days. Kidney damage can also occur. Some patients will require a liver transplant.Amatoxins are found in some mushrooms in the genus Amanita, but are also found in some species of Galerina and Lepiota. Overall, mortality is between 10 and 15 percent.Recently, Silybum marianum or blessed milk thistle has been shown to protect the liver from amanita toxins and promote regrowth of damaged cells, including a study in which 60 patients exposed to death cap poison were given 20 mg/kg of milk thistle seeds per day within 48 hours of consuming the deadly mushrooms. None of the patients died.
  • Orellanine: This toxin causes no symptoms for 3–20 days after ingestion. Typically around day 11, the process of kidney failure begins, and is usually symptomatic by day 20. These symptoms can include pain in the area of the kidneys, thirst, vomiting,headache, and fatigue. A few species in the very large genus Cortinarius contain this toxin. People who have eaten mushrooms containing orellanine may experience early symptoms as well, because the mushrooms often contain other toxins in addition to orellanine. A related toxin that causes similar symptoms but within 3–6 days has been isolated from Amanita smithiana and some other related toxic Amanitas.
  • Muscarine: Muscarine stimulates the muscarinic receptors of the nerves and muscles. Symptoms include sweating, salivation, tears, blurred vision, palpitations, and, in high doses, respiratory failure. Muscarine is found in mushrooms of the genus Omphalotus, notably the Jack o’ Lantern mushrooms. It is also found in A. muscaria, although it is now known that the main effect of this mushroom is caused by ibotenic acid. Muscarine can also be found in some Inocybe species and Clitocybe species, particularlyClitocybe dealbata, and some red-pored Boletes.
  • Gyromitrin: Stomach acids convert gyromitrin to monomethylhydrazine (MMH), a compound employed in rocket fuel. It affects multiple body systems. It blocks the important neurotransmitter GABA, leading to stupor, delirium, muscle cramps, loss of coordination, tremors, and/or seizures. It causes severe gastrointestinal irritation, leading to vomiting and diarrhea. In some cases, liver failure has been reported.It can also cause red blood cells to break down, leading to jaundice, kidney failure, and signs ofanemia. It is found in mushrooms of the genus Gyromitra. A gyromitrin-like compound has also been identified in mushrooms of the genus Verpa.
  • Coprine: Coprine is metabolized to a chemical that resembles disulfiram. It inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which generally causes no harm, unless the person has alcohol in their bloodstream while ALDH is inhibited. This can happen if alcohol is ingested shortly before or up to a few days after eating the mushrooms. In that case the alcohol cannot be completely metabolized, and the person will experience flushed skin, vomiting, headache, dizziness, weakness, apprehension, confusion, palpitations, and sometimes trouble breathing. Coprine is found mainly in mushrooms of the genus Coprinus, although similar effects have been noted after ingestion of Clitocybe clavipes.
  • Ibotenic acid: This organic acid is metabolized to muscimol. The effects of muscimol vary, but nausea and vomiting are common. Confusion, euphoria, or sleepiness are possible. Loss of muscular coordination, sweating, and chills are likely. Some people experience visual distortions, a feeling of strength, or delusions. Symptoms normally appear after 30 minutes to 2 hours and last for several hours. A. muscaria, the “Alice in Wonderland” mushroom, is known for the toxic/hallucinogenic properties caused by muscimol, but A. pantherina and A. gemmata also contain the same compound. While normally self-limiting, fatalities have been associated with A. pantherina, and consumption of a large number of any of these mushrooms is likely to be dangerous.
  • Psilocybin: This compound is converted into psilocin when ingested. Symptoms begin shortly after ingestion. The effects can include euphoria, visual and religious hallucinations, and heightened perception. However, some persons experience fear, agitation, confusion, and schizophrenia-like symptoms. All symptoms generally pass after several hours. Some (though not all) members of the genusPsilocybe contain psilocybin, as do some Panaeolus, Copelandia, Conocybe, Gymnopilus, and others. Some of these mushrooms also contain baeocystin, which has effects similar to psilocin.
  • Arabitol: A sugar alcohol, similar to mannitol, which causes no harm in most people but causes gastrointestinal irritation in some. It is found in small amounts in oyster mushrooms, and considerable amounts in Suillus species and Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca (the “false chanterelle”).

Best to remove any mushroom as soon as possible so that animals can’t ingest them.


CONTACT YOUR VET FOR TREATMENT OPTIONS
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 Lone Star English Setter Club provides this information
as a partial reference of the potential poisons that could harm your dog.
We are not veterinarian’s and DO NOT provide medical help.

If you think that your animal is ill or may have ingested a poisonous substance,
contact your local veterinarian or
the ASPCA’s 24-hour emergency poisoning hotline directly

 1-888-426-4435